By J. M. Polak, S. R. Bloom (auth.), Professor Dr. Klaus Havemann, George Sorenson MD, Priv. Doz. Dr. Claus Gropp (eds.)
The occurrence of lung melanoma has reached epidemic proportions in the course of the civilized international. One indication of the scale of this challenge is that during the U.S. lung melanoma has turn into the top reason behind melanoma dying in girls in addition to males. In 1912 there has been a "nearly whole consensus of opinion that fundamental malignant neoplasms of the lung (were one) of the rarest sorts of disease," in keeping with Adler. through 1937, in spite of the fact that, it had turn into transparent that the occurrence of lung melanoma used to be expanding considerably; this raise has been innovative ever considering that. it's now renowned that a few lung cancers provide upward push to numerous hormones which, now and then, produce scientific manifestations. The organization of hormone construction with a "nonendocrine" tumor increases many questions, the solutions to which could shed a few mild at the etiology of this commonly used kind of melanoma. This interesting prob lem has encouraged a large choice of reports in either the medical and the fundamental sciences. some of the newer experiences during this box have been mentioned on the overseas Symposium on Peptide Hor mones and Lung melanoma held in Marburg, West Germany, on June 18-20, 1984. This quantity includes the papers that have been pre sented in this occasion.
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Extra resources for Peptide Hormones in Lung Cancer
The investigators suggested that the enkephalins inhibit the release of endogenous acetylcholine from postganglionic, parasympathetic neurons (Russell and Simons 1984). An analog of enkephalin has induced asthmatic wheezing in man. However, in human asthmatics, the blockage of endogenous opioids with naloxone does not decrease their bronchoconstrictive response to the inhalation of cold air (Weinberger et al. 1982). In a study of chronic Peptide Hormones and Their Possible Functions in the Normal and Abnormal Lung 23 obstructive pulmonary disease, endogenous opiates were found to prevent an increase in respiratory effort when the patients were presented with added airway resistance (Santiago et al.
Intermediate lobe processing involves cleavage or partial cleavage at all the available dibasic signal sequences. Following removal of the signal peptide in the endoplasmic reticulum, the 31 K precursor is cleaved to form the 23K ACTH biosynthetic intermediate and ,8-LPH. This is thought to take place mainly within the Golgi apparatus. Subsequent cleavages are thought to take place mainly within the secretory granule fraction in two phases. The 16K N-terminal fragment, joining peptide, a-MSH, CLIP, y-LPH and ,8-endorphin are formed rapidly.
It is known that angiotensin II is released from hypoxic lung, and it has been invoked as a mediator of the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictive reflex (Allison and Clay 1976; Berkov 1974). Intrapulmonary arachidonic acid metabolites, including prostacyclin, are released by angiotensin II (Gryglewski et al. 1980). Interestingly, in the rabbit, the administration of angiotensin II into the right ventricle caused ultrastructurallesions of the alveolar epithelium, changes which could eventuate in alveolar flooding (Gil and McNiff 1983).