By Maxwell Mapako, Abel Mbewe
Power provide is a key consider monetary and social improvement, yet loss of smooth strength in rural components limits efforts to relieve poverty and increase residing criteria. This e-book identifies the choices for supplying sleek and better renewables-based strength to low-income rural parts, with distinct emphasis at the its efficient makes use of. within the 5 nations represented - Botswana, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Zambia and Zimbabwe - the participants specialize in some great benefits of a decentralized method of power supply, the function of income-generating actions in attracting glossy power prone to rural parts, and the obstacles in addition to possibilities that exist within the merchandising of renewable power applied sciences.
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Extra resources for Renewables and Energy for Rural Development in Sub-Saharan Africa (African Energy Policy Research)
Government should establish a national PV credit scheme with easier terms of payment and enact a training policy on PV electrification and relevant standards in order to address the current problems of installation, repair and maintenance of PV devices in rural areas. 01_renewable energy intro 10 2/4/04 11:42 am Page 10 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA • An effective policy is needed to ensure that the grid-based and PV rural electrification in Botswana complement rather than compete with each other.
For example, tobacco curing uses 23 per cent of total fuelwood consumption in Malawi (Kgathi and Mlotshwa, 1997; McCall, 2001), while beer brewing consumes 25 per cent of total fuelwood annually in Zambia (ZERO, 1998). Lighting, motive and shaft power needs of SMcEs are invariably met using modern energy sources, for example, electricity from the grid or from gensets, kerosene or solar PV. 12. 12 Renewable energy technologies for small and micro rural enterprises Production enterprises Commercial & service enterprises Solar drying Processing of tobacco, timber, coffee, tea, wood and fruits Solar water heaters Crop processing Clinics, schools Animal-driven vehicles Transport Transport, water pumping Cookstoves* Beer brewing Food kiosks, food preparation for clinics, hospitals and schools Photovoltaics Dairy processing Electrification of small shops, bars, food kiosks, and powering of mobile communication devices Charcoal kilns* Production of charcoal for sale in rural and urban areas Source: Adopted from Best, 1992a, 1992b * Only renewable if the source of wood is from planned forests that are regularly replanted.
Approximately 4–5 million children in developing countries die annually due to acute respiratory infections. A recent study in a rural area in Kenya found that women, who undertook most of the cooking at household level, were exposed to twice as much particulate emission as their male counterparts, and were on average twice as likely to suffer from respiratory infections (Schirnding, 2001). 3, particulate emissions from the use of fuelwood are significantly higher than the recommended average. In a recent study of indoor air pollution levels, the recommended level concentration of particulates below 10 microns in diameter was set at 150 µg/m3.