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By Jonscher A.K.

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The impact of circular polarisation can also be computed via co-polar and cross-polar reflection coefficients as follows: 1 Rco ¼ ðRjj þ R? Þ 2 1 and Rcx ¼ ðRjj À R? 6). 3 ROUGH SURFACE SCATTERING The reflection processes discussed so far have been applicable to smooth surfaces only; this is termed specular reflection. 7). This reduces the energy in the specular direction and increases the energy radiated in other directions. The degree of scattering depends on the angle of incidence and on the roughness of the surface in comparison to the wavelength.

1(e), and use this to explain why the surfaces of copper conductors in high-frequency circuits are often gold-plated. 8 Compare the attenuation of a plane wave travelling 1 m through a non-magnetic medium with  ¼ 10À4 S mÀ1 and "r ¼ 3 at 100 MHz, 1 GHz and 10 GHz. 9 Describe, in your own words, the physical meaning of Maxwell’s equations and why they are important for wireless communications. 10 A vertically polarised plane wave at 1900 MHz travels in the positive z direction in a medium with constitutive parameters r ¼ 1, "r ¼ 3 and  ¼ 10 S mÀ1 .

Notice that in both cases the vertically polarised reflection goes to zero at one angle. Waves of random polarisation incident at this angle will be reflected to have a purely horizontal component, illustrating that the polarisation state is not preserved following reflection or transmission. 4 also show that, as the angle of incidence goes closer to 90 , the reflection coefficient approaches À1 in all cases, independent of polarization, while the transmission coefficient drops to zero. This situation is known as grazing incidence and is closely approximated in practice when a transmitter antenna is low in height compared with the distance to the receiver.

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