Download Storms, Violent Winds, and Earth's Atmosphere by John P Rafferty PDF

By John P Rafferty

No matter if ruining a shuttle or devastating whole houses and nations, inclement climate has the facility to catch awareness and headlines in a fashion few different subject matters can. whereas storms may be surprising or unforeseen, the atmospheric stipulations that produce them, in addition to different kinds of weather—violent and otherwise—are in position and churning good sooner than the total variety in their results may be felt. This publication examines the technological know-how that provides us a better realizing of the styles that produce hurricanes, tornadoes, cyclones, and a number of comparable stipulations. It additionally discusses one other power factor of inclement climate, that's how you can larger expect climactic extremes.

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Extra info for Storms, Violent Winds, and Earth's Atmosphere

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These low-level winds have been called the trade winds since 17th-century sailing vessels used them to travel to the Americas. The convergence region for lower-level northeast and southeast trade winds is called the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The ITCZ corresponds to the equatorial trough and is the mechanism that helps generate the deep cumulonimbus clouds through convection. Cumulonimbus clouds are the 52 7 The Role of the Atmosphere 7 main conduit transporting tropical heating into the upper troposphere.

When ice nuclei are present, heterogeneous ice nucleation can occur at warmer temperatures. Ice nuclei are of three types: deposition nuclei, contact nuclei, and freezing nuclei. Deposition nuclei are analogous to condensation nuclei in that water vapour directly deposits as ice crystals on the aerosol. Contact and freezing nuclei, in contrast, are associated with the conversion of supercooled water to ice. A contact nucleus converts liquid water to ice by touching a supercooled water droplet. Freezing nuclei are absorbed into the liquid water and convert the supercooled water to ice from the inside out.

Diatomic nitrogen (N2), a relatively heavy gas, drops off rapidly with height and exists in only trace amounts at 500 kilometres (300 miles) and above. This decrease in the concentration of heavier gases with Earth’s atmosphere, as seen from the International Space Station in 2003. Underneath a sliver of the Moon, atmospheric layers rise from the black limb of Earth (bottom) to the lightest-shaded troposphere. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center 36 7 The Role of the Atmosphere 7 height is largest during periods of low Sun activity, when temperatures within the heterosphere are relatively low.

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