Download Studies in Anaphora by Barbara A. Fox (Ed.) PDF

By Barbara A. Fox (Ed.)

The final 15 years has noticeable an explosion of study concerning anaphora. reports of anaphora were vital to our knowing of cognitive tactics, the relationships among social interplay and grammar, and of directionality in diachronic swap. The contributions to this quantity symbolize the “next new release” of experiences in anaphora — outlined widely as these morpho-syntactic kinds on hand to audio system for formulating reference — taking as their start line the basis of study performed within the Eighties. those experiences learn intimately, and with a richness of equipment and theories, what styles of anaphoric utilization can divulge to us approximately cognition, social interplay, and language change.

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Therefore, discourse-functional status) is functionally relevant in languages only that do not have complete freedom of word order. Only if there are restrictions of word order should there be a need to mark different discourse functions at the hand of different forms. Any language with such linear restrictions simply scrambles its elements — presupposed that case marking then identifies the newly reached positions. Thus, there will always be a strategy to satisfy two very Discourse-referential and Typological Motivation 29 heterogeneous needs: grammatical ones (such as the identification of verbal agreement features or case on nouns) and discoursefunctional ones.

Namu? s-PN PN this-thing what-INT tree 'What (is) this? ' wencengi-to pwuthi-e po -a. ' ... (4 turns labeling the shapes) i -ke pwuthi-e po- a. ' wenceng -to pwuthi-e po -a. ' pwuthi -e po -a. ' In Example (7), an overt subject appears with the predicate pwuthita in line 2, since the Research Assistant, who has been placing shapes on the board, is contrasting the child with herself as potential agent. In line 3, a zero anaphor is used for the subject, which has the same referent as the most recent prior human subject (Wenceng), while an overt deictic pronoun (i-ke 'this-thing') is used to introduce a new referent, a shape for the child to place, as the direct object.

Referential Strategies (4) 1. 2. 3. 47 Wenceng's mother is eliciting a series of labels of animal names; Wenceng has just mislabeled a monkey khokkili 'elephant'. M: khokkili, khokkili eti iss-e? ' W: yo -ke khokki-S-PN this-thing elepha-This (is) an elepha--' M: yo -ke khokkili ya. ' In Example (4) Wenceng's mother uses the existential issta in her initiation (line 1), but switches to the copula (line 3) in response to Wenceng's answer (line 2), which has the appropriate referential configuration (S-PN) for an argument structure with the copula.

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