By Zaki Ergas
In the 1st twenty-five years of African independence the behaviour of the African nation elites has now not been, with a number of awesome exceptions, conducive to self-sustained improvement. What are the explanations for this sorry scenario? What will be performed to opposite that unlucky pattern? those are the 2 overarching questions with which this publication makes an attempt to grapple.
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Extra resources for The African State in Transition
On economic conditionality see J. : Institute of International Economics, 1983); G. K. : the World Bank, 1986). , that explored the African debt crisis. The conference papers - among them contributions by G. K. Helleiner, T. Killick, E. V. K. Jaycox, E. H. Brau and R. Agarwalawere later collected and edited into a book by C. Lancaster and J. : Institute for International Economics, 1986). A pioneer study was the International Labor Organization's Employement, Incomes and Inequality: A Strategy for Increasing Productive Employement in Kenya (Geneva: ILO, 1972); for a good introduction to the subject, see D.
Political and bureaucratic leadership were seen as 'modernizing elites' who would substitute for an absent entrepreneurial capitalist class. 40 In addition, the 'development and welfare' school of terminal colonial administrations in Africa exalted state planning and direction of programs of economic expansion and social services (at least on paper) for postcolonial governments. Seeking the political kingdom seemed an obvious strategy because the state appeared well-nigh autonomous in harnessing the energies of society.
To speak of the importance of the state requires the subordination of individual wants to a presumed common interest. African ideologies emphasized the developmental role of the state, thus tying the legitimacy of the state itself to economic and social improvement. But idea-mongering that continues to diverge from practice or from built-up popular expectations can be boring and even damaging. What content in practice, other than elite demands, is there for 'authenticity' in Zaire, or 'humanism' in Zambia, or 'ujamaa' in Tanzania today?