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By Ryuichi Kitamura

'This quantity of the eleventh foreign convention on shuttle Behaviour study, held in Kyoto, Japan, in August 2006, examines key concerns and rising developments within the turning out to be box of commute behaviour. Advances in ICT, adjustments in financial factors/economic weather, and the issues of commute congestion all give a contribution to alterations in our life and accordingly our commute wishes and wishes, hence impacting on trip behaviour. those court cases replicate invaluable discussions on such concerns on the subject of the increasing sphere of go back and forth behaviour research. in particular, the "Proceedings of the eleventh convention of the foreign organization for trip Behaviour learn" include: the keynote speeches of Professor John Urry of Lancaster collage (sociology) and Professor Masahisa Fujita of (then) Kyoto college (economics); workshop source papers by means of eminent authors in 9 topic components; synthesis papers (with a spotlight on Asian developments); and, sixteen study papers chosen from presentation classes. All papers, together with the workshop experiences, have been reviewed by way of not less than referees'.

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Sample text

That may have been the secret of Japanese economic strength, but I think that recently the Japanese economy is not doing well, and perhaps the antinomy is working. I think that Japanese people may be becoming too close through their communication, as well as through media, and that people are becoming too similar in their thoughts. This is why the synergy for the creation of new ideas might be diminishing. The important thing is thus to retain heterogeneity in the creation of knowledge. In the rest of my presentation, I will present a simple model of knowledge interaction without expressly considering space.

Let us take the simple case of four people. Afterwards, I will introduce the general case of N persons. Of course, the four-person case is much richer than the two-person case because you can change partners. That is why the four-person case is called the square dance. Possible configurations in the four-person case are shown in Figure 11. One possible configuration at any given moment is that each person goes to separate caves on a mountain and thinks in isolation. Another possible configuration is that persons one and two get together to write a new paper, while persons three and four get together and do the same.

However, for an academic laboratory, differential knowledge is very important and the optimal partnership size appears to get bigger and bigger. If the weight of common knowledge is high enough, then a two-person partnership becomes optimal. When is this the case? When is common knowledge essential? When can you never switch partners? This case is marriage. If you are married and you try to switch partners, you will have a lot of trouble. So far I have not introduced the importance of location in space.

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