By David Cesarani
The ultimate Solution clarifies the major questions surrounding the try via the Nazis to exterminate the Jews. Drawing on very important new learn, those authoritative essays specialise in the preconditions and antecedents for the 'Final answer' and view the instant origins of the genocidal decision.
Contributors additionally research the responses of peoples and governments in Germany, occupied Europe, america and between Jews world wide. The debatable conversions of this research problem a lot of our authorized rules concerning the period.
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Extra info for The Final Solution: Origins and Implementation
This changed with the belated ‘discovery’ of the secret police reports on the public mood in Germany throughout the Nazi period. The publication of these reports and commentaries on them stimulated a lively debate. Lawrence Stokes in 1973 established that knowledge of the Einsatzgruppen operations was widespread, but information about such atrocities helped to cow the population into silence. 61 Otto Dov Kulka argued that the Nazi regime succeeded in totally depersonalizing the Jews, but not sufficiently to avoid Germans experiencing apprehension and the fear of reprisals.
Not many historians will agree that with regard ‘to the visible anti-Jewish violence’ of the Nazis during the pogroms of November 1938 the ‘traditional German values retained the upper hand over Nazi propaganda’. ’17 The evaluations made by scholars like Otto Dov Kulka and Ian Kershaw, which were at one time in conflict, have now to some extent converged. 18 Most historians today will agree that all of these attitudes were in evidence but that almost no active, and very little passive opposition, can be positively identified.
Thanks to Hitler’s obsessive Judeophobia, anti-Semitism, which had already become a part of later völkisch thought, now became the central issue. 6 Whether anti-Judaism or anti-Marxism took first place in Hitler’s Weltanschauung,7 what is essential in our present context is the interchangeability of anti-capitalism and antiBolshevism in assigning to ‘the Jew’ the role of the Volksfeind (Volk-enemy). Jews were the primary target of völkisch aggression and invective, as the incarnation of everything opposed to the Volksgemeinschaft.