Download The Inner Planets. Mercury, Venus, and Mars by Sherman Hollar PDF

By Sherman Hollar

Regardless of their proximity to Earth, a lot continues to be discovered concerning the origins and stipulations of Mercury, Venus, and Mars. the 3 smallest planets in our sun process and the 3 closest to the Sun—Mercury, Venus, and Mars—differ drastically from one another and from where we name domestic. This far-reaching quantity travels to every of the internal planets in flip and information the actual features in addition to the exploration efforts made so that it will study extra approximately our closest planetary acquaintances.

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Extra resources for The Inner Planets. Mercury, Venus, and Mars

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Its apparent speed would change depending on the viewer’s location on the planet and on the planet’s distance from the Sun. The Sun would sometimes even appear to briefly reverse its course. Mercury’s spin axis is very nearly perpendicular, or upright, relative to its plane of orbit. By comparison, Earth’s axis is tilted almost 24 degrees. This inclination is the main reason there are seasons on Earth. Because Mercury’s axis is not tilted, it does not have Earth-like seasons. Chapter 2 PHYSICAL FEATURES AND EXPLORATION OF MERCURY Mercury has been known for approximately 5,000 years.

Scientists believe that Venus underwent an intense period of global resurfacing only roughly 500 million years ago. One possible explanation is that the planet’s outer shell may have slowly thickened until eventually it collapsed. This may have been a single event or the last in a cycle of global convulsions that each time renewed the surface. A surface map of Venus shows the planet’s global topography. The map is color coded: The lowest elevations are in blue and the highest are in red. The elevation figures are expressed as distance from the center of the planet.

Veneras 9 and 10 each consisted of an orbiter and a lander. In October 1975 the orbiters became the first craft to orbit Venus, while the landers sent back close-up photographs of the surface. They were the first photographs taken from the surface of a planet other than Earth. The radar mappers aboard the final craft of the mission, Venera 15 and 16, produced high-quality images of the Venusian surface in 1983–84. Many of the types of geologic features found on Venus were first revealed by these twin orbiters.

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