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By Federico Marcon

Among the early 17th and the mid-nineteenth century, the sphere of average background in Japan separated itself from the self-discipline of medication, produced wisdom that wondered the normal non secular and philosophical understandings of the realm, built right into a process (called honzogaku) that rivaled Western technology in complexity—and then doubtless disappeared. Or did it? within the wisdom of Nature and the character of information in Early glossy Japan, Federico Marcon recounts how eastern students built a worldly self-discipline of average background analogous to Europe’s yet created independently, with out direct impression, and argues convincingly that eastern average background succumbed to Western technology now not as a result of suppression and substitution, as students typically have contended, yet by way of edition and transformation.

The first book-length English-language research dedicated to the real box of honzogaku, the data of Nature and the character of information in Early sleek Japan should be an important textual content for historians of eastern and East Asian technology, and a desirable learn for someone drawn to the improvement of technology within the early glossy period.

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39 Li Shizhen arranged the entry (xiaogang, shōkō) of each species into a structure of eight subchapters (xianmu, shōmoku)— although not all entries have eight sections. After the standard name (zhengming) of the species, he listed all names under which the species under consideration was known in the past or in different regions (shiming, shakumei). The next subchapter, jijie (shūkai), consisted of information on habitat, seasonality, morphology, properties, and other The Bencao gangmu and the World it Created 37 attributes of the species under consideration.

In ancient Japan, the formal study and practice of medicine was restricted to the Ten’yakuryō (the Institute of Medicine), which was a department of the Imperial University (Daigakuryō) established in the late seventh century. 11 It contained explanations of 730 kinds of medicinal substances, divided into seven categories (bu) of minerals ( yushi, gyokuseki in Japanese), plants (caomu, sōmoku), animals (chongshou, chūjū), fruits ( guo, ka), vegetables (cai, sai), staples (mishi, beishoku), and “things with name but without use” ( youming weiyong, yūmei miyō).

The Bencao Gangmu Classificatory System in Sixteen Sections 1. ) and “water that spills from the ground” 2. huo 火, ka, hi: 11 entries of “fires,” from the “fire” of the Five Phases to specific kinds of fire, like sparks (fire that originates from clashing stones), fire from wood, fire from coal, and so on 3. tu 土, do, tsuchi: 61 entries on “earths”— that is, the various kinds of terrains, clays, and so on; a total of 61 species (zhong) 4. jinshi 金石, kinseki: 161 entries of “metals and minerals,” further subdivided into the 4 categories of metals ( jin), jewels ( yu 玉, gyoku), stones (shi), and salts (lu 鹵, ro) 5.

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