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By Malcolm Grimston

A accomplished multi-disciplinary survey of determination making within the power box, specially electrical energy within the united kingdom and western Europe.

summary: A complete multi-disciplinary survey of choice making within the power box, in particular electrical energy within the united kingdom and western Europe

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Extra info for The paralysis in energy decision making: European energy policy in crisis

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16. 0 per cent). 18 UK gas production and consumption (mtoe), 1970–2014 33 The Paralysis in Energy Decision Making rapidly than in any other EU member. 4 per cent (from 256 mtoe to 116 mtoe). 17. 18. Of course countries with fossil fuel reserves generally wish to sell them. Being a net energy importer per se need not be a barrier to a successful economy. However, the UK finds itself at the end of some long pipelines across Europe. Furthermore, when the UK had its own North Sea reserves of gas and oil, storage was less of an issue – in effect, the oilfields and gasfields themselves were the storage capacity.

We calculate that the oil industry will be able to recover only about another 1,000 billion barrels of conventional oil. A few more examples: • 2001: Professor Kenneth Deffeyes, Princeton University – peak oil would be in 2005 (an idea he clung to at least until 2009); • 2006: Matthew Simmons, founder of the Ocean Energy Institute – peak oil had been reached in 2005 (in 2005 Simmons had bet a journalist and the widow of an economist $2,500 each that the price of oil would average over $200 per barrel in 2010, though sadly, at least from his punters’ point of view, he died before he could settle up, the price having remained stubbornly below $100 throughout that year); • 2007: Energy Watch Group, Germany – production had peaked in 2006 and would decline by several percentage points annually; 27 The Paralysis in Energy Decision Making • 2007: Sadad Al Husseini, former head of production and exploration at Saudi Aramco – peak reached in 2006; • 2008: US Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas – peak in all oil, including unconventional sources, would occur in 2010.

As well as being produced by decaying plant matter there are very large methane reserves to be found as separate deposits or associated with oilfields and coalfields. The first use of natural gas for electricity generation by a utility was in 1939 for an emergency power station in Neuchatel, Switzerland. Nonetheless, until the late years of the twentieth century it was regarded as a limited resource which should be reserved for premium purposes, principally space heating and cooking. The lifting of a European Commission Directive banning the use of electricity for electricity generation, coupled with the emergence of the highly efficient Combined Cycle Gas Turbine, the first of which in Britain began generation in 1991 at Roosecote in Cumbria, and, in the UK, the liberalisation of power markets created a major new market for gas and consumption grew steadily through the 1990s.

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