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Nicolai Hartmann was once the most unique 20th century German philosophers. but, he didn't compromise readability and rigor for skillability and originality. pointed out as a neo-Kantian, he grew to become essentially the most very important critics of German idealism and probably the most resolute proponents of ontological realism. He constructed what he referred to as the "New Ontology," which lies on the middle of a scientific opus branching out in all the major components of philosophy. He proposed leading edge and promising suggestions to outdated and new difficulties within the numerous components of philosophy. His paintings had a tremendous impression in philosophy in addition to in numerous sciences. The papers amassed during this quantity discover topics similar to Hartmann's thought of different types, his aporetics, idea of values and ethics, philosophy of biology, philosophy of brain, philosophy of arithmetic, the effect he had on anthropology, and his position within the heritage of philosophy.

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The first is that consciousness must come out of itself to be able to cognize anything. This is opposed by the antithesis, which states that consciousness cannot come out of itself, for, according to the “principle of consciousness,” it always deals only with its own contents. “This principle (the principle of consciousness) is in manifest antinomy with the phenomenon of knowledge, as far as the latter is given as the apprehension of a transcendent reality” (Hartmann 1965, 327). How can this antinomy be resolved?

A second series of moments is needed: the horizontal series articulating the totality of the actual reality (Hartmann 1940, 312). This implies that the principle-concretum type of determination is far from being the only determination shaping the whole of reality; a second type of determination – of a non categorial nature – should be included: a determination of the concretum-concretum type (Hartmann 1940, 430). The ideal sphere does not contain the latter type of determination. Among all the different kinds of real determination, only two are directly accessible to us: the causal nexus between inanimate entities and the final nexus between spiritual entities (Hartmann 1940, 314).

The thesis is that the properties of the object must somehow be transferred to the subject. Only in this way is it possible for the image in the subject to be a representation of something objective. The antithesis is that, given that the object remains transcendent, the object’s properties are not reproduced in the image of the object. If the thesis is true, the object has no transcendent character. This cannot be the case, however, because in the phenomenon of knowledge, the object is experienced as being transcendent.

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